On the structural level, the Bologna process has led to greater convergence in the archi-tecture of national higher education systems. The overall broadness of the guidelines ex-pressed in communiqués, declarations and related texts, however, allows countries and insti-tutions to maintain specific characteristics for most programmes. In order to help the devel-opment of comparable and understandable degrees and systems, a number of pre-existing 'tools‘ were introduced in the Bologna Process to foster transparency and mutual recognition. These aim to make education systems and programmes more transparent and render them understandable for all.


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